Here are some ways to say that two things or people or ideas are the same or different.

When they are different

a We can say the same thing AFFIRMATIVELY (Comparative (Unit 68) + than) or NEGATIVELY (not as...as)


[A] Iraq is hotter than Italy. =
[N] Italy is not as hot as Iraq.

[A] The exam was easier than I thought. =
[N] The exam was not as difficult as I thought.

[A] He should drive more slowly than that. =
[N] He shouldn't drive as quickly as that.

[A] He gets more money than me. =
[N] I don't get as much money as him.

[A] The meal today was more expensive than yesterday. =
[N] The meal yesterday was not as expensive as today.

b Another way to say not as...as is less...than:

The exam was less difficult than I thought.
I get less money than him.

c Sometimes, it is not necessary to use than:

John's English is good but Maria's is better (than John's).

He's looking for a job with more money (than he gets now).

d We can use much, nearly, a little and quite to show:

a big difference

Iraq is much hotter than Italy.
Italy isn't nearly as hot as Iraq.

a small difference

Drive a little more slowly than that.
Don't drive quite as quickly as that.

When they are the same

Use as...as

He ran as fast as he could. (He could not run any faster.)

I'm as tall as you are. (We are the same height.)

Is Athens as noisy as Cairo? (Are they equally noisy?)

To show exactly the same: I'm just as tall as you are.

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Exercise 69.1
Exercise 69.2
Exercise 69.3